contract law questions and responses

How are plurals managed as a issue of New York contract law?
If a time period is described ‘Party’ and is afterwards referenced as ‘Parties’ what elements would go to deciphering it as ‘all Parties’ or ‘one or a lot more Parties’? A courtroom will glance to the context in which it is applied. In these pretty uncommon cases in which the variation.

Contract legislation and agency legislation?
How can I give an case in point of how a discussion between the human being answering the cell phone at a doctor’s place of work and the patient who called could make a contract, demonstrating information of contract law and agency legislation? the human being answering the cell phone in the dr’s place of work sites an purchase for place of work materials or health care.

I have a question about organization legislation course?
There exists – in the field of contract law – both equally contract and non-contract theories of recovery. Relying upon the individual fact circumstance, a bash could possibly file a lawsuit for breach of an specific contract in fact or an implied contract in fact. These are both equally contract theories! A bash could possibly.

What are my rights less than buyer/contract law when I terminate a company?
I subscribe to for web. I now function for a telecom co & am eligible for minimized personnel charges. I contacted Supanet & advised them I want to give canx discover, I assumed 1 months would be conventional, but was advised that the canx would be.

i need to have to discover some legal tips?
need to have legal tips in contract law with landlord and tenant challenges. Landlord-tenant legislation governs the rental of professional and residential property. It is composed mostly of condition statutory and common law. A amount of states have primarily based their statutory legislation on both the Uniform Household Landlord And Tenant Act (URLTA) ( or.

Solving legal trouble??
I have acquired a trouble in which I want you enable me solving. It is a question about contract law which says: About fifteen miles from Potters Bar, in tranquil countryside, there is a garments manufacturing unit with its own manufacturing unit store. In the store window there is a discover stating: ‘Limited offer, twenty RD23 anti-match jeans.

There are established rules in contract law. One rule states that, in which a minimal enters into a contract, the?
The Issue Omar, aged 17, acquiring finished a pottery study course at college, decided to leave property in purchase to observe his ambition to become a producer and seller in fantastic art pottery. He moved to London in which he entered into.

‘time shall be of the essence’ in a contract?
Does anyone know what ‘time shall be of the essence’ in a contract signifies and what takes place if this is not highly regarded? What are the legal effects? It IS one thing you normally see in a contract, at least in the US. In contract law, pretty generally time is not a.

I have a question about contract law.?
if i remember my organization legislation course properly if there is a contract between two events and there are say ten factors in the contract that just one bash desires to abide by and they will not abide by even 1 product in the contract. is this contract void? i thought a contract had.

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Right before You Go in, Look at a Cohabitation Settlement Underneath Virginia Legislation

Everybody has read about premarital agreements, also identified as prenuptial agreements. Most have also read of marital agreements and separation agreements. What you may perhaps not have read much about is cohabitation agreements, irrespective of the reality that currently, there are quite a few people today dwelling alongside one another in casual partnership preparations. Although all those people today who dwell alongside one another with out an express agreement are not entitled to rights and privileges below Virginia regulation (Virginia does not accept palimony fits), it is doable within the bounds of contract law to build and set up contractual obligations which may perhaps be enforced for the profit of the companions.

In Virginia marriage is a position, not merely a contractual arrangement. Nevertheless, when Virginia handed the constitutional amendment in defense of marriage, quite a few people today sought to keep the regulation from staying handed by asserting that this sort of a regulation would impair the rights of heterosexual and homosexual companions to agreement with each other. As of this producing, it does not surface that this prediction has occur to fruition there are no claimed situations on position. Meanwhile, people today proceed to enter into contracts, partnerships, joint ventures and enterprise preparations.

In our exercise more than the yrs we have seen quite a few individuals who entered into dwelling preparations, even enterprise preparations, investments and joint enterprises with out the profit of an express agreement. Lots of of all those people today paid out dearly for the oversight. Although oral contracts are recognized in Virginia, it can be tough or impossible to show the conditions of the agreement the place there is no producing and the events do not concur as to the conditions.

Unquestionably if you intend to devote your time and funds into a job with a different person it is a superior plan to have a crystal clear knowing of the agreements you have with that person, like the rights and obligations of each of you separately and jointly, and to memorialize all those agreements, rights and obligations in a producing signed by each events. These express contracts, if properly drafted, may perhaps be enforced. On the other hand, failure to memorialize the agreements, rights and obligations in producing final results in sizeable uncertainty as to whether or not there is or is not an enforceable agreement and uncertainty as to the conditions of the agreement.

What can you not do by agreement? In Virginia you are not able to by agreement build a marriage with out actually having married. You are not able to devote in your partner the position of a partner with all rights and rewards of a partner as if you were being lawfully married with out actually having married.

What can you do by agreement? You can determine your respective property rights in property you deliver into the romance and in property obtained although you are alongside one another. You can also determine your respective contributions to the servicing of the house, as very well as, the benefit of your respective contributions to the partnership, what payment, if any shall be manufactured by each partner.

You can also determine the total of contribution to be manufactured to expenditures, to investments and to enterprises, how you are likely to handle your finances although you are alongside one another. These agreements can contain an agreement to build a will or believe in with provision for the partner, as very well as a provision for “crucial person” lifetime insurance policy. The agreement may perhaps and should really also deal with dissolution of the partnership. In our exercise, we have seen gals pour tens of countless numbers of dollars up to $a hundred,000 into houses titled only in their friends’ names with absolutely nothing in producing. This is not sound enterprise sense. Think about it if you are likely into enterprise with a different personal or into partnership with them, it helps make sense to have a prepared agreement location out the understandings and claims amongst you.

(c) 2009 by Virginia Perry, J.D. This article may perhaps be reprinted for own use, offered the reprint states, “This article is staying reprinted with the authorization of the author, Virginia Perry, J.D.”

Source by Virginia Perry

Contract Law In The Kingdom Of Thailand

A contract is an exchange of promises concerning two or much more individuals for a particular objective. It is a legally enforceable arrangement that generates a motivation to do or not to do something. The central aspect of most contracts is a set of shared promises. The promises are designed by the parties that describe the privileges and obligations of the parties. The expression ‘party’ can signify an specific, company or company. No make a difference what type of contract you take, owning an knowing of contract law is a central aspect to build audio small business agreements that will be lawfully enforceable in the event when a clash arises.

In Thailand, the contract law is managed by the Thailand Civil & Professional Code (TCCC) and other Thai legal authorities. The contract is a complete description of the obligations and responsibilities and the time limit for overall performance of the parties. The law presents the parties comparatively wide independence to agree any terms. The typical rule of contract beneath the TCCC is that the contract is binding and concluded in which the supply is approved and the recognition is communicated from the offeree to the offeror. All contracts really should be offered in the variety of a prepared document signed by the two parties. A person of the significant possibility spots is that the rules in particular restrict things to do of foreigners, such as the Foreign Company Act and Land Act.

As in any common law program, concluding a contract involves supply, acceptance, formality, thing to consider and intention to develop a legal connection. The contract encompass terms that are expressly agreed on by the individuals as perfectly as implied ailments that were not specifically organized but implied into the contract by act or courtroom clarification. In typical, implied terms may not be inconsistent with the specific terms of a contract. At common law, courts would usually suggest a expression into a contract if it is important to present effectiveness to the contract from a small business level of look at.

Basically there are two distinctive spots in which the put of the contract gets to be important. The foremost is the range of law clause. It describes the law of which nation will implement. The second is the preference of discussion board clause that specifies which nation a grievance may be submitted and a legal circumstance may be enforced in courtroom. See of the terms should be offered at or prior to concluding the contract. The terms should be referred to or contained in a document that was projected to have contractual influence and fair ways should be taken to provide the terms to concentration of the other social gathering.

The TCCC states that the rules of that nation will implement if the parties are of the exact same nationality. On the other hand, if the parties are not of the exact same nationality, the law of the nation in which the contract has been designed will implement. For occasion in which a contract has been designed concerning parties at a length, the nation in which the contract is considered to have been designed is the nation in which detect of the acceptance reaches the vendor. If such a put are not able to be identified, the law of the nation in which the contract is to be performed shall govern.

Agreements concerning foreigners and Thai nationals are enforceable in Thailand. Actual estate, buy and sale of house, hotel and house management, assures, construction are the important contracts that are entered into concerning foreigners and Thai companions. Shareholder agreements, work, have faith in agreements, bank loan, joint ventures, franchising, licensing and distributorship are other styles of contracts that are found to be incredibly common. In accordance to TCCC, if a contract of sale is topic to a time clause or to a condition, the ownership of the house is not transferred right up until the condition is fulfilled, or the time has arrived. The completion time of the contract of sale is referred to hereafter as the time of sale. The prices of a sale contract are paid out by both equally parties similarly.

If a disagreement in excess of a contract arises and informal attempts at resolution fall short the most common method utilized to enforce contracts and take care of contract disputes is via the courtroom program and lawsuits. Courts and official lawsuits are not the only choice for individuals and businesses associated in contract disputes. The parties can have a mediator to review a contract dispute, or may agree to binding arbitration of a contract dispute.

Source by Gregory Smyth

Common Law Deal Enforcement Specifications: Privity

At the coronary heart of contract law is the idea of privity of contract. One of the fundamental checks of whether a contract binds a particular person is whether a romance of privity exists. Without the need of privity there is no contractually binding obligation. The problem influences contract extra with respect to enforcement than formation a contract could exist but the essential questions normally missed are “who could sue” on the contract and “who is liable” below the contract? The concern of privity is also a make any difference of logic. In a totally free modern society there is no obligation to enter into a contract for the most portion. Therefore, it is only logical, that the common law boundaries the scope of contractual legal rights and obligations to a slim class of folks. Therefore there are two pieces to the rule:

*No other person can acquire legal rights below a contract to which he/she is not a get together.

*Third get-togethers, i.e., those people not get together to the contract are not able to be held liable below a contract

This, in essence, is the doctrine of privity of contract.

The Property of Lords decision in the 1968 circumstance of Beswick v Beswick [1968] AC fifty eight is the authority which ideal describes privity and which rejects the choice idea that any beneficiary to a contract can sue on it (the acquiring of Lord Denning in the Court of Attraction. In that circumstance an ageing partner, Peter Beswick, assigned his business to his nephew. One term of the settlement was the payment of a weekly annuity to Mrs. Beswick right after the death of Mr. Beswick. The nephew determined, on Peter’s death, that he was not obliged to fork out the annuity as Mrs. Beswick was not a get together to the contract. The courtroom acknowledged this rivalry. Having said that Mrs. Beswick was authorized to implement the contract as the administratrix of the estate of Mr. Beswick in which, by standing in the sneakers of the deceased, she turned a get together to the contract and as a result entered a romance of privity with her nephew.

When does a contract give rise to a romance of privity?

It is crucial to understand that this doctrine of privities excludes 3rd get-togethers from gaining legal rights below a contract even if that get together is explicitly referred to by name in the contract as the beneficiary of a provision of that contract. So, for illustration, if Y and X agree that Y really should compensate X for a provider rendered to Z, then Z is not in a posture to implement the legal rights that have been seemingly created in his favor below the contract even if Y fails to fulfill his obligations.

Having said that, there are some exceptions to this. Underneath the legislation of company, in which B is secretly acting as an agent for C, C could intervene to implement a contract in between A and B. In this circumstance, B will drop out and the contract will be one particular which back links A directly to C. Also, below the Highway Visitors Act 1988, folks specified in a 3rd get together automobile insurance policy plan could sue the insurance policy enterprise to implement the plan for their have gain.

When does a liability come up below a contract?

The rule that outsiders are not able to incur liabilities below a contract is also topic to a variety of exceptions. Thus the legislation has authorized outsiders to be so affected in which professional usage or trade customs so presents. Restrictive covenants impacting land could also have implications for 3rd get-togethers, as these could run with the land.

An illustration of a restrictive covenant impacting a 3rd get together occurs in which P buys a actual asset which is the topic of a covenant in favor of a 3rd get together either nominated specifically or a member of a obviously identifiable class.

Resource by Rebecca Lim

Doctrine of Accord and Satisfaction

Doctrine of Accord and Satisfaction

Accord and satisfaction is the purchase of the release from an obligation, whether arising under contract or tort by means of any valuable consideration not being the actual performance of the obligation itself. The accord is the agreement by which the obligation is discharged. The satisfaction is the consideration which makes the agreement operative. The consideration may be executory.

Under English law, an accord without satisfaction is of no effect. In Indian law, an accord is an agreement, there must be consensus ad idem; its validity liable to be judged by the general law of contract quite apart from the provisions of sections 62 and 63 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872.

A liability arising out of breach of contract may be discharged by the doctrine of accord and satisfaction. An accord is an agreement made after breach whereby some consideration other than the legal remedy is to be accepted by the party not in fault, followed by the performance of the substituted consideration.

The question is, whether an arbitration clause in a contract survived despite the purported satisfaction of the terms of the contract. Normally, an accord and satisfaction by itself would not affect the arbitration clause for even rights and obligations of the parties are worked out, the contract does not come to an end. If the dispute is that the contract itself does not subsist, the question of invoking the arbitration clause may not arise. But in the event it be held that the contract survives, recourse to the arbitration clause may be taken.

The doctrine of accord and satisfaction has many underlying principles, including the acceptance of a lesser sum and acceptance of any satisfaction. The Privy Council gave its views on the doctrine in Payan Reena Saminathan v. Puna Lana Palaniappa [41 IA 142]. The doctrine and its usage in India have been derived from the American Common Law.


Section 63 of the Indian Contract Act allows a party to a contract to dispense with the performance of the contract by the other party, or to extend the time of performance or to accept any other satisfaction instead of the performance.

According to Section 62 of the Indian Contract Act, on the other hand, every person who accepts a proposal may dispense with or remit wholly or in part, the performance of the proposal made to him which he has accepted, or may extend the time for such performance or may accept instead of it any satisfaction which he thinks fit.

In accordance with section 62 and section 63 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the party who has the right to demand the performance may:

(i) dispense with or remit the performance; or

(ii) extend the time for performance; or

(iii) accept any other satisfaction instead of performance.

The sections 63 and 62 must be construed so as to not overlap with each other. This can be done by holding that agreements referred to in section 62 are agreements which more or less affect the rights of both the parties to the contract discharged by such agreements. Those referred to in section 63 are such as to affect the right of only one of the parties.

The former case necessarily implies consideration, which may be either the mutual renunciation of right, or, in addition to this, the mutual undertaking of fresh obligations, or the renunciation of some right on the one side and the undertaking of some obligation on the other. It is only when the agreement to discharge affects the right of only one party that consideration might be found wanting. There alone the Indian law departs from the English law by making provisions for every such possible case in section 63. The result is that the agreement set up by the defendant which falls under section 63 is binding, though without consideration.

This section enables the defendant in a suit filed by the promise, dispensing or remitting performance or accepting satisfaction and subsequently trying to enforce, the promise made to him, to plead that he was relieved from performance that which the plaintiff told he need not do. It has been held, in the case of New Standard Bank Ltd. v. Probodh Chandra Chakravarty [AIR 1942 Cal 87], that an agreement made between the parties after the breach of contract may be enforced under this section.

Difference from the English Contract Law:

Under the English law, it is competent for both parties to an executor contract by mutual agreement, without any satisfaction, to discharge the obligation of that contract; in other words, reciprocal promises are a sufficient consideration for each other, so are reciprocal discharges. A contract rescinded by an agreement, stands completely discharged and cannot be revived.

But an executed contract cannot be discharged except by release under seal, or by performance of the obligation, as by payment where the obligation is to be performed by payment. Subject to that exception, ‘the new agreement in rescission or alteration of the prior contract must in general satisfy all the requirements of an independent contract’, and so must an agreement to accept satisfaction for a right of action which has arisen by breach of contract.

This section makes a wide departure from the English law, and the principles of that law cannot be relied upon to interpret the section. The intention of the present section to alter the rule of the common law is clear; and this has been recognised in several Indian cases.

Necessity of satisfaction in a contract:

In 1903, the High Court of Bombay had held (Abaji Sitaram Modak v. Trimbak Municipality) that a dispensation or remission under this section involved a promise as defined by section 2(b) or an agreement within section 2(e), so that ‘there must be a proposal of the dispensation or remission which is accepted’: in technical terms, that the effect of the section is only to allow an accord to be good without satisfaction.

Many jurists have continuously protested against this ruling and suggested that the words of the section ought to be construed according to their natural meaning and a promise could discharge the promise not only without consideration but without a new agreement.

Views of the Privy Council:

The principle of accord and satisfaction has been stated by the Privy Council as a principle of substituted agreement thus in the cases of Reena Saminathan v. Puna Lana Palaniappa [41 IA 142] and UOI v. Kishorilal Gupta & Bros [AIR 1959 SC 1362].:

“The ‘receipt’ given by the appellants and accepted by the respondent, and acted upon by both parties proves conclusively that all the parties agreed to a settlement of all their existing disputes by the arrangement formulated in the ‘receipt’. It is a clear example of what used to be well-known in common law pleading as ‘accord and satisfaction by a substituted agreement’. No matter what were their respective rights of the parties inter se they are abandoned in consideration of acceptance by all of a new agreement. The consequence is that when such an accord or satisfaction takes place, the prior rights of the parties are extinguished. They have, in fact, been extinguished by the new rights; and the new agreement becomes a new departure and the rights of all the parties are fully represented by it.”

There have been two interpretations of this doctrine till date, the situation in which the party not at fault accepts any satisfaction in place of the original consideration and most importantly, when he or she accepts a lesser sum as satisfaction until the previous contract is discharged.


The doctrine of accord and satisfaction is merely a method of discharging a claim whereby the parties agree to give and accept something in settlement of the claim and perform the agreement, the accord being the agreement and the satisfaction its execution or performance, and it is a new contract substituted for an old contract which is thereby discharged, or for an obligation or cause of action which is settled, and must have all of the elements of a valid contract.

To constitute an accord and satisfaction, there must have been a genuine dispute that is settled by a meeting of the minds with an intention to compromise. Where there is an actual controversy, an accord and satisfaction may be used to settle it. The controversy may be founded on contract or tort. It can arise from a collision of motor vehicles, a failure to deliver oranges ordered and paid for, or a refusal to finish constructing an office building, etc.

An accord and satisfaction can be made only by persons who have the legal capacity to enter into a contract. A settlement is not binding on an insane person, for example; and an infant may have the right to disaffirm the contract. Therefore, a person, such as a guardian, acting on behalf of a person incapable of contracting for himself or herself may make an accord and satisfaction for the person committed to his or her charge, but the law may require that the guardian’s actions be supervised by a court.

An executor or administrator may bind an estate; a trustee can accept an accord and satisfaction for a trust; and an officer can negotiate a settlement for a corporation.

A third person may give something in satisfaction of a party’s debt. In such a case, an accord and satisfaction is effected if the creditor accepts the offer and the debtor authorizes, participates in, or later agrees to, the transaction.

For example, a widower has an automobile accident but is mentally unable to cope with a lawsuit because his wife has just died. He gratefully accepts the offer of a close family friend to talk to the other driver, who has been threatening a lawsuit. The friend convinces the other driver that both drivers are at fault to some extent. The friend offers to pay the other driver $500 in damages in exchange for a written statement that she will not make any claim against the widower for damages resulting from the accident. The family friend and the other driver each sign a copy of the statement for the other, and when the payment is made, the accord and satisfaction is complete. If the other driver then sues the widower for more money on account of the accident, the widower could show that he agreed to let his friend negotiate an accord and satisfaction, and the court would deny relief.

Most commonly, this is seen in situations where people lack the capacity to consent and negotiate legal agreements, and the person negotiating the contract may be supervised to confirm that the agreement is in the best interests of the person being represented. People can also reach accord and satisfaction on behalf of someone else more informally; for example, a parent may help an adult child settle a debt to a landlord, acting on behalf of the child to resolve the matter. However, the law may require that the guardian’s actions be supervised by a court. An executor or administrator may bind an estate; a trustee can accept an accord and satisfaction for a trust; and an officer can negotiate a settlement for a corporation.

An accord and satisfaction is a contract, and all the essential elements of a contract must be present. The agreement must include a definite offer of settlement and an unconditional acceptance of the offer according to its terms. It must be final and definite, closing the matter it covers and leaving nothing unsettled or open to question. The agreement may call for full payment or some compromise and it need not be based on an earlier agreement of the parties. It does not necessarily have to be in writing unless it comes within the statute of frauds.

Unless there are matters intentionally left outside the accord and satisfaction, it settles the entire controversy between the parties. It extinguishes …